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Animal Husbandry & Veterinary

Care and management of young stock

The newborn animals are the future generation of the herd. Proper care and management during the early period of their lives, results in good health and high production in the adulthood. The economy of a livestock farm depends upon the health and vigour of the farm replacement stock. Hence, it is important to bring up the young stock with utmost care so as to replace the old stock by a group of sound and high yielding farm born animals. The various measures to be taken for the young cow right from birth are as follows:

1.    Removal of mucous: Just after the young one is born, the mucous adhering to the body and nostrils should be removed with the help of a clean cloth. In some species the mother is very sensitive in removing the mucous by licking.

2.    Attending the naval cord: the naval cord should be squeezed from the body if not detached. During the process tincture of iodine or any other antiseptic should be painted in the cut end to prevent infection.

3.    Colostrum feeding: Immediately after birth, the newborn should be allowed to suckle the mother for the first milk, i.e. colostrum. Colostrum gives immunity to the newborn against many diseases.

4.    Protection from cold and heat: For the first few days of the calf live they should be well protected from severe cold and hot.

5.    Vaccination and anthelmintics:  It should be given to the young ones to protect them form various infections and parasitic diseases.

6.    Feeding: Care should be taken to fed the young stock as per requirement.

Care and management of pregnant animals

Pregnancy period varies from species to species. This period can be divided in to 3 parts, viz. 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. 1st and 3rd trimesters are very critical and crucial.

Pregnant animals are like expectant mothers and need tender and careful treatment likewise. The early stage and later one-third of the gestation period are very critical in the life of a female animal. In the early stages of pregnancy, disturbances can cause abortion. During the later one third of the demand are made on the mother from the rapidly growing foetus and the on coming lactation. The animal has physical limitations due to enlargement of abdomen and fear from causing damage to the foetus inside. The animal becomes slow and gentle separating itself from the general herd/ flock and avoids fights. In order to keep the pregnant animals comfortable, particularly those in the advance stage of pregnancy the following manage mental care may be undertaken: 

  1. Do not tire by making them walk long distances, especially over uneven surfaces.
  2. Slippery conditions in the stalls must be strictly avoided as it may lead to fall, dislocation, fracture and spread-eagled condition. The last mentioned being mostly fatal in large animals.
  3. They should not be teased by children, dogs etc.
  4. Do not allow them to fight with other animals.
  5. Adequate feeding should be done to meet the nutrient requirements of both the mother and the developing foetus.
  6. Do not allow them to mix with other infected animals, particularly those have aborted or are suffering from or carriers of diseases like brucellosis.
  7. Provide adequate water for drinking and protect the animals from thermal stress.

 

Care and management of dry animals

 

In the early stages of pregnancy the cow will be yielding milk. But it is necessity to dry them off after about 300 days of lactation so that they will be able to recoup and get ready for the next lactation. The best way to dry a cow is to stop milking forthwith. In case of heavy yielder this practice may cause other troubles. Intermittent milking is a commonly used method of drying animals. Incomplete milking is another method in which the farmers partially milk the cows for a few days before drying off. Towards the later part of pregnancy, dry cows should be given some additional amount of feed for the growth and development of the foetus and to be ready for the oncoming lactation. The lactation period of a dairy cow is 305 day and 60 days should be kept as dry period. 

 Vaccination schedule for cattle

 

Sl. No.

Name of the disease

Vaccination schedule

Duration of immunity

remarks

1.        

Foot and Mouth Disease (Saboka rog)

About 6 months of age with booster dose 4 months later and subsequent vaccination annually

One year

This disease occurs in all cloven footed animals.

2.        

Black Quarters (Jahar baat)

Once in a year pre monsoon vaccination

One year

 

3.        

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (Golfula)

Once in a year pre monsoon vaccination

One year

 

4.        

Anthrax (Tatua)

Once in a year pre monsoon vaccination

One year

 

5.        

Rinderpest (Go Basanta)

At about 6 months of age

Life long

It is better to repeat after 3 to 4 years.

6.        

Brucellosis

At about 6 months of age

One year

To be done only in infected herds.

N.B. Words in parentheses Assamese terms.

 



2005 Assam SFAC
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